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Configuration via Services

Langium supports the configuration of most aspects of your language and language server via a set of services. Those services are configured by modules, which are essentially mappings from a service name to its implementation.

We can separate services and modules into two main categories:

Shared Services

The shared services are services that are shared across all Langium languages. In many applications there is only one Langium language, but the overall structure of the services is the same.

  • The ServiceRegistry is responsible for registering and accessing the different languages and their services.
  • The Connection service is used in a language server context; it sends messages to the client and registers message handlers for incoming messages.
  • The AstReflection service provides access the structure of the AST types.
  • Shared services involved in the document lifecycle (future documentation)

Language Specific Services

The language specific services are services specific to one Langium language and isolated from other languages.

  • Services for LSP features
  • Services involved in the document lifecycle (future documentation)
  • Utility services (e.g. References, JsonSerializer)

Customization

If you have used the Yeoman generator, the entry point to services customization is found in the src/language-server/...-module.ts file, where ‘…’ is the name of your language. There you can register new services or override the default implementations of services. Langium implements the Inversion of Control principle via the Dependency Injection pattern, which promotes loosely-coupled architectures, maintainability, and extensibility.

For the following sections, we will use the arithmetics example to describe the procedure for replacing or adding services. Note that all names prefixed with Arithmetics should be understood as being specific to the language named Arithmetics, and in your project those services' names will be prefixed with your own language name.

Please note that it is not mandatory to implement all custom code via dependency injection. The main reason for using dependency injection is when your custom code depends on other services. In many cases you can use plain functions instead of service classes to implement your application logic.

Overriding and Extending Services

Thanks to the dependency injection pattern used in Langium, your can change the behavior of a service or add to its functionality in one place without having to modify every piece of code that depends on the service to be overridden or extended.

The arithmetics example provides a custom implementation of the ScopeProvider service, which overrides functionalities from the default implementation DefaultScopeProvider.

First, we need to register the new implementation of ScopeProvider inside of the ArithmeticsModule:

export const ArithmeticsModule: Module<ArithmeticsServices, PartialLangiumServices & ArithmeticsAddedServices> = {
    references: {
        ScopeProvider: (services) => new ArithmeticsScopeProvider(services)
    }
};

In the ArithmeticsModule singleton instance, we map a property with the name of our service (here ScopeProvider) to a concrete implementation of the service. This means that the first time we access the service named ScopeProvider, a new instance of the class ArithmeticsScopeProvider will be created instead of the default implementation DefaultScopeProvider. The provided factory function is invoked only once, which means that all services are handled as singletons.

In order to successfully override an existing service, the property name (here ScopeProvider) must match exactly that of the default implementation.

The ArithmeticsScopeProvider overrides two methods from DefaultScopeProvider:

export class ArithmeticsScopeProvider extends DefaultScopeProvider {

    protected createScope(elements: Stream<AstNodeDescription>, outerScope: Scope): Scope {
        return new StreamScope(elements, outerScope, { caseInsensitive: true });
    }

    protected getGlobalScope(referenceType: string): Scope {
        return new StreamScope(this.indexManager.allElements(referenceType), undefined, { caseInsensitive: true });
    }

}

The functions createScope and getGlobalScope are already defined in DefaultScopeProvider but needed to be overridden to add the option {caseInsensitive: true}. This is achieved through inheritance: By using the keyword extends, ArithmeticsScopeProvider inherits from DefaultScopeProvider, which means that it can access properties and methods as well as override methods declared in the superclass.

In the DefaultScopeProvider, those two methods are declared as:

protected createScope(elements: Stream<AstNodeDescription>, outerScope: Scope): Scope {
    return new StreamScope(elements, outerScope);
}

protected getGlobalScope(referenceType: string): Scope {
    return new StreamScope(this.indexManager.allElements(referenceType));
}

Now, when we call either createScope or getGlobalScope from the ScopeProvider service, the call will be made from the ArithmeticsScopeProvider instead of the DefaultScopeProvider. Functions that were not overridden will still be called from DefaultScopeProvider via inheritance.

Of course it is also possible to replace the default implementation with a completely separate one that does not inherit from the default service class.

Adding New Services

To add services that are not available by default in Langium, e.g. application specific ones, we first need to edit the type ArithmeticsAddedService. By default, the Yeoman-based generator adds a validator service where you can implement validation rules specific to your language. New services are added as properties to the type declaration:

export type ArithmeticsAddedServices = {
    ArithmeticsValidator: ArithmeticsValidator
}

The ArithmeticsAddedService type now has a property ArithmeticsValidator of type ArithmeticsValidator.

For the sake of organization and clarity, the services can be nested inside of other properties acting as “groups”:

export type ArithmeticsAddedServices = {
    validation: {
        ArithmeticsValidator: ArithmeticsValidator
    },
    secondGroup: {
        AnotherServiceName: AnotherServiceType
    },
    nthGroup: {
        withASubGroup: {
             YetAnotherServiceName: YetAnotherServiceType
        }
    }
}

Now that we have declared our new services inside of the ArithmeticsAddedServices type definition, we need to specify to the module how we want them to be implemented. To do so, we need to update the ArithmeticsModule:

export const ArithmeticsModule: Module<ArithmeticsServices, PartialLangiumServices & ArithmeticsAddedServices> = {
    validation: {
        ArithmeticsValidator: () => new ArithmeticsValidator()
    }
};

Similarly to overridden services, the first access to the ArithmeticsValidator property will create a new instance of the class ArithmeticsValidator.

The ArithmeticsValidator service does not depend on other services, and no argument is passed during the instantiation of the class. If you implement a service that depends on other services, the constructor of your service should expect <yourDslName>Services as argument. The initializer function can expect that object as argument and pass it to your services constructor, such as:

export const ArithmeticsModule: Module<ArithmeticsServices, PartialLangiumServices & ArithmeticsAddedServices> = {
    ServiceWithDependencies = (services) => new ServiceClass(services);
}

The services which ServiceClass depends on need to be registered in the constructor:

export class ServiceClass {
    private readonly serviceOne: ServiceOne;
    private readonly serviceTwo: ServiceTwo;
    private readonly serviceN: ServiceN;

    constructor(services: ArithmeticsServices) {
        this.serviceOne = services.ServiceOne;
        this.serviceTwo = services.Group.ServiceTwo;
        this.serviceN = services.Group.SubGroup.ServiceN;
    }
    /* service logic */
}

Using ArithmeticsValidator in other services

The ArithmeticsValidator needs to be registered inside of the ValidationRegistry. This done by overriding ValidationRegistry with ArithmeticsValidationRegistry.

Briefly, ArithmeticsValidator implements two checks, checkDivByZero and checkNormalisable:

export class ArithmeticsValidator {
    checkDivByZero(binExpr: BinaryExpression, accept: ValidationAcceptor): void {
        ...
    }

    checkNormalisable(def: Definition, accept: ValidationAcceptor): void {
        ...
    }
}

These two new checks need to be registered inside of the ValidationRegistry. We extend ValidationRegistry with ArithmeticsValidationRegistry to implement our new functionalities:

export class ArithmeticsValidationRegistry extends ValidationRegistry {
    constructor(services: ArithmeticsServices) {
        super(services);
        const validator = services.validation.ArithmeticsValidator;
        const checks: ArithmeticsChecks = {
            BinaryExpression: validator.checkDivByZero,
            Definition: validator.checkNormalisable
        };
        this.register(checks, validator);
    }
}

Inside of the ArithmeticsValidationRegistry, we obtain our ArithmeticsValidator with const validator = services.validation.ArithmeticsValidator, which will create a new instance of ArithmeticsValidator. Then we declare the checks to be registered and register them inside of the registry via the function register which is declared in the superclass. The ArithmeticsValidationRegistry only adds validation checks to the ValidationRegistry, but does not override any functionality from it.

The implementation of ArithmeticsValidationRegistry needs to be registered in ArithmeticsModule. The complete ArithmeticsModule is:

export const ArithmeticsModule: Module<ArithmeticsServices, PartialLangiumServices & ArithmeticsAddedServices> = {
    references: {
        ScopeProvider: (services) => new ArithmeticsScopeProvider(services)
    },
    validation: {
        ValidationRegistry: (services) => new ArithmeticsValidationRegistry(services),
        ArithmeticsValidator: () => new ArithmeticsValidator()
    }
};

Language Server Protocol

If you want to modify aspects of the Language Server, this section will help you find the relevant service for handling a given LSP request.

CompletionProvider

The CompletionProvider service is responsible for handling a Completion Request at a given cursor position. When a Completion Request is submitted by the client to the server, the CompletionProvider will create a CompletionList of all possible CompletionItem to be presented in the editor. The CompletionProvider service computes a new CompletionList after each keystroke.

DocumentSymbolProvider

The DocumentSymbolProvider service is responsible for handling a Document Symbols Request. The DocumentSymbolProvider is used to return a hierarchy of all symbols found in a document as an array of DocumentSymbol.

HoverProvider

The HoverProvider service is responsible for handling a Hover Request at a given text document position. By default, Langium implements tooltips with the content of the preceding multiline comment when hovering a symbol.

FoldingRangeProvider

The FoldingRangeProvider service is responsible for handling a Folding Range Request. This service identifies all the blocks that can be folded in a document.

ReferenceFinder

The ReferenceFinder service is responsible for handling a Find References Request. This service is used to find all references to a given symbol inside of a document.

DocumentHighlighter

The DocumentHighlighter service is responsible for handling a Document Highlights Request. This service will find all references to a symbol at a given position (via the References service) and highlight all these references in a given document.

RenameHandler

The RenameHandler service is responsible for handling a Rename Request or a Prepare Rename Request. First, the service will check the validity of the Prepare Rename Request. If the request is valid, the service will find all references to the selected symbol inside of a document and replace all occurrences with the new value.